The Centre for Multiparty Democracy (CMD-Kenya) is inviting applications from qualified individual consultants to conduct a study to identify causes of political violence in Kenya focusing on the conflict dynamics in the political context. The activity is part of CMD-Kenya’s “Partnership for Peacebuilding in Kenya” project whose objective is to contribute to a more secure, peaceful, and cohesive Kenyan society. This objective is to be achieved by building the capacity of political parties in conflict transformation and dialogue, by institutionalizing conflict transformation in political formations and developing community level structures and capacity to manage political violence, and by facilitating inter-ethnic and inter-religious dialogue, youth empowerment and accountability measures at the local level. CMD-Kenya is a political parties-based membership organization whose mandate is to enhance multiparty democracy and strengthen the institutional capacity of political parties in Kenya through policy influence and capacity building. The organization provides a platform for political parties, political actors and policy makers to engage in dialogue and cooperate in strengthening multiparty democracy.
Context and the problem to be solved.
Kenya ranks 142 out of 189 countries on the Human Development Index (2018), 17 out of 178 countries on the Fragile States Index (2018) and is categorized as “high risk and stable” in INFORM’s risk index (2019). While Kenya is not categorized as a fragile country according to the category “Risk Class Very High” of the INFORM index, it is recommended that this intervention is assessed against an understanding that while Kenya has a relatively stable political system, the causes of violence that continue to arise remain largely unaddressed, and Kenya should therefore be considered a fragile country.
Political violence relates to acts of violence that are carried out primarily as a means of achieving political influence or power. In Kenya, political violence has typically taken the form of murder, assaults, internal displacements, sexual abuse such as rape, forced pregnancy or sterilization. A tendency of utilizing violence as a means of obtaining political influence and the inability of political leaders (at all levels) to dialogue and develop solutions to issues around access to land, livelihoods, youth empowerment and employment, and (political) marginalization of minority groups form the core of the challenges facing the Kenyan society today. This is what this project will address. Violence and in other ways destructive conflicts also take place directly in and between political parties.
The manner in which delegation of power is implemented has great implications for whether or not contesting or conflicting groups are actually represented in the public arena. The wrangles within the governor’s office and between the governor’s office and the county assembly members over numerous issues have only served to disenfranchise the people and heighten tensions. Local level politics and politicians take advantage of existing community tensions and fuels animosity between ethnic and religious groups, widening the gap for peaceful co-existence, while marginalization from central political decision- making processes remains at the core of the problem. While devolution was meant to ‘disperse’ the centers of power and notions of belonging, the last four years have demonstrated heightened competitions between ethnic and religious groups which often turn violent
Despite the fact that conflict is inherent and inevitable, there is need to transform negative peace into positive peace, especially in the political context. In Kenya, the role of civil society in peacebuilding is vital. This study seeks to understand the challenges of the pervasive political violence and inter-community conflicts by supporting local peacebuilding actors to lead inclusive peacebuilding processes.
CMD-Kenya is undertaking this study to identify causes of political violence in Kenya, focusing on the conflict dynamics in the political context. The objectives of the study are to:
The consultancy will entail the following:
Qualifications of the consultant
The consultancy will be conducted for a single phase lasting 5 working days.
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